Examining The Link Between Asbestos Exposure Carcinogens And Death

The interaction between healthy cells and exposure to asbestos fibers has been studied in earnest. Unfortunately, the environmental exposure commonly encountered by the certain populations in industrial countries has been unacceptably high. One interesting study on point is called, +Asbestos Fibres in the Lungs of Chrysotile Miners and Millers + a Preliminary Report+ by N. Rowlands, GW Gibbs, and AD McDonald .

Here is an excerpt: +Transmission electron microscope examination of 47 autopsy lung samples from Quebec miners and millers showed that tremolite was present in approximately similar quantities to chrysotile (with crocidolite and amosite in much smaller amounts), although the quantity of tremolite compared with chrysotile in the ore worked was extremely small. These findings suggest to remove chrysotile from the lungs and to retain the tremolite. However, in spite of this removal, it seems that the chrysotile content of lung tissue can serve as an indicator of past exposure. The effect of the interval between exposure and death will be examined later. The design of the study does not permit evaluation of the contribution of tremolite to pulmonary fibrosis in Quebec miners and millers.

A second study entitled mRNA expression patterns in different stages of asbestos-induced carcinogenesis in rats+ by H. Sandhu, W. Dehnen, M. Roller, J. Abel and K. Here is an excerpt: Human malignant mesotheliomas are induced almost exclusively by fibrous dusts. The nature of interactions between fibers and target cells, and the molecular mechanisms leading to tumorigenesis, are not yet understood. Here, the mRNA expression patterns at different stages of asbestos-induced carcinogenesis in rats were monitored by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and array assay. Several genes were upregulated in pretumorous tissues from asbestos-treated rats, in asbestos-induced tumors and in cells treated with asbestos in vitro. The upregulation of the proto-oncogene c-myc, fra-1 and egfr in fiber-induced carcinogenesis was demonstrated at different stages of carcinogenesis. A dose-dependent expression in in mesothelial cells treated with asbestos in vitro substantiates a possible role of Fra-1 as one of the dimeric proteins generating the AP-1 transcription. The upregulation of osteopontin (an extracellular matrix protein) and of zyxin and integrin-linked kinase (intracellular proteins associated with the focal adhesion contact), indicate that fibers may affect integrin-linked signal transduction and extracellular matrix proteins

A third study called “Environmental exposure to asbestos and risk of pleural mesothelioma: review and meta-analysis”  by Valirie Bourdis, Paolo Boffetta and Paola Pisani. Here is an excerpt: A number of epidemiological studies have addressed the risk of pleural mesothelioma from environmental (household and neighborhood) exposure to asbestos, but no overall risk estimate is available. The researchers reviewed the epidemiological studies on risk of pleural mesothelioma and household or neighborhood exposure to asbestos then identified eight relevant studies; most were conducted in populations with relatively high exposure levels. The risk estimates in a meta-analysis were combined based on the random-effects model. The relative risks (RRs) of pleural mesothelioma for household exposure ranged between 4.0 and 23.7, and the summary risk estimate was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.3 12). For neighborhood exposure, RRs ranged between 5.1 and 9.3 (with a single RR of 0.2) and the summary estimate was 7.0 (95% CI: 4.7 11).

If you found any of these excerpts interesting, please read the studies in their entirety.

articledashboard.com/Article/Examining-the-Link-Between-Asbestos-Exposure-Carcinogens-and-Death/1591873

 

Diagnostic Specificity Asbestos Exposure and Mesothelioma Disease

An interesting study called  “Latent Period for Malignant Mesothelioma of Occupational Origin” by Lanphear, Bruce P. MD, MPH; Buncher, C. Ralph ScD has objectives to estimate the minimal latent period for malignant mesothelioma of occupational origin, we reviewed 21 articles that documented latent periods for malignant mesothelioma, totaling 1690 cases. About 1105 cases fullfiled the strict histologic and exposure criteria and were included in this analysis. Of these mesotheliomas, 99% had a latent period more than 15 years; 96% had a latent period of at least 20 years. The probability of first exposure of an occupational within a decade was zero. After the initial exposure, estimated median latent period was at least 32 years. These are improtatnt conclusions as they can help in determining the source of a specific case of the disease, understanding the natural history of the disease, determining liability, and in aiding in the diagnosis of malignant mesotheliomas of occupational origin.

Phase II Trial of a Single Weekly Intravenous Dose of Ranpirnase in Patients With Unresectable Malignant Mesothelioma” by Stanislaw M. Mikulski, John J. Costanzi, Nicholas J. Vogelzang, Spence McCachren, Robert N. Taub, Hoo Chun, Abraham Mittelman, Timothy Panella, Carmelo Puccio, Robert Fine, Kuslima Shogen – Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol 20, Issue 1 (January), 2002: 274-281. Here is an excerpt: “ABSTRACT – PURPOSE: A multicenter phase II trial of ranpirnase (Onconase; Alfacell Corp, Bloomfield, NJ) as a single agent was conducted to further assess the safety and clinical efficacy of this novel antitumor ribonuclease. Patients with unresectable and histologically confirmed malignant mesothelioma (MM) were eligible.

The research sample and metods were used one hundred five patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 to 2 were enrolled onto the study. Thirty-seven percent of patients had not responded to prior chemotherapy. The primary end point of the study was survival. Tumor responses and time to progression were also assessed. The Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) prognostic group criteria were used to define a treatment target group (TTG). Both the intent-to-treat (ITT) and the TTG populations were analyzed for survival.

Another interesting study is called, “Thrombomodulin expression in malignant pleural mesothelioma and pulmonary adenocarcinoma.” By C. L. Collins, N. G. Ordonez, R. Schaefer, C. D. Cook, S. S. Xie, J. Granger, P. L. Hsu, L. Fink, and S. M. Hsu Am J Pathol. Here is an excerpt: Thrombomodulin (TM) is a glycoprotein of molecular weight 75,000 kd that is normally present in restricted numbers of cells, including endothelial and mesothelial cells. In this study, the authors tested the possibility of using anti-TM to facilitate the diagnosis of mesothelioma. All of the 31 mesotheliomas and the two mesothelioma cell lines (MS-1 and MS-2) tested were stained positively with anti-TM. In situ hybridization of MS-1 cells with a TM-specific probe was confirming the specify of anti-TM staining in mesothelioma cells. The expression of TM in MS-1 cells was increased markedly when these cells were induced by 12-0-tetradecanyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) to differentiate.

However, the expression of TM in mesothelioma cells did not correlate with any particular phase of the cell cycle. The researchers compared compared the expression of TM, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and Leu M1 in these two types of tumors in an attempt to differentiate pleural mesothelioma from pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Antibodies to TM stains positively four of 48 (8%) pulmonary adenocarcinomas. Therefore, immunohistochemical staining with antibodies to TM yielded 100% sensitivity and 92% specificity for diagnosis of mesothelioma. All of the mesotheliomas stained negatively for CEA and Leu M1, except for one, which showed minimal focal positivity for Leu M1. In contrast, 79% and 60% of adenocarcinomas stained positively for CEA and Leu M1, respectively. These findings suggest that immunocytochemical staining with anti-TM should be added to the battery of tests to increase the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for differentiating mesothelioma from pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

Read the studies in entirety if you find these helpful and interesting.  We all owe a great debt to these researchers for their important work.

articlesbase.com/cancer-articles/diagnostic-specificity-asbestos-exposure-and-mesothelioma-disease-3408059.html

Indoor Gardening

Plenty people put a plastic tree in a corner, and named it indoor gardening, but indoor gardening has developed into something more than that recently.  There are also so many people think that plants should stay inside, but there are many causes for beginning an indoor garden.  For an example, plants not only take away carbon dioxide from the air, they also clear away a lot of toxins and pollutants as good.  Indoor gardening will outcome beautiful decoration in your house and cleaner air too.

While picking plants for indoor gardening ensure that the plants are changeable well in the situation of the house. The arrangement the time you will be able to give for caring the plants, manage the light that your house offers, and also budgeting the money you want to pay out for your indoor garden.  If you have a low budget, begin with seeds or cuttings.  If you have a more money to give out you can purchase a plant that is once grown.  Another thing to think about is if you desire a plant that can be a show off all the year or just for the season. Herb gardens are a wonderful idea for indoor gardening; they are attractive and tasty.  They will grow pretty fast and don’t have to wait for a longer to see outcomes.  Some favorite herbs, specifically for cooking are oregano, chives, dill, thyme, and sage.

While indoor gardening, think about the experience you receive before picking a plant.  There are some plants that are tough to kill and therefore better for a newcomer gardener.  There are Cyprus, Popular Succulents, Fatsia, Bromeliads, Coleus, and Scandens.

The basic techniques of maintaining the plant in indoor gardening are different than in a normal outdoor technique.  Since plants won’t receive the sunlight like they do in outdoors, lighting is very important.  You have to know accurately light your plants receive and choose plants which only received average to less light, like Philodendrons, unless you think out to provide artificial lighting.  If you purchased a plant already grown, it probably has got better lighting than your house so you have to “condition” your plant and slowly lower the light it gets.  Once you put the plant inside, ensure and switch the plant to stimulate straight-up the growth.

Just because you do indoor gardening, don’t forget that the plants have to get water.  The frequently watering depends on what type of plant you grow.  Ensure the pot has a drainage hole to drain out the water and attempt to use water is about the same as the room temperature and in order to ensure healthy plants.  About 10 to 15-degree temperature won’t injure any plants, but quick changes can cause damage.

Indoor gardening is easy; actually, it is pretty similar as outdoor.  Even, there are some benefits in indoor gardening.  For instance, you won’t have to afraid of bugs and insects attack your plants also won’t have to get trouble with wind or frost in your garden.

Vacuum Cleaners: a Guide to the Industrial Level

Two basic functions in mind when designing industrial vacuum cleaner are the removal of debris of all types from the floor and the removal of debris of all types from the air in the working environment. Even though the first application was tricky, to say the least, specific needs were dealt with until systems and units were produced. It could handle almost any type of debris from the floor of a manufacturing company.

The question is what size of the debris that we are dealing with. We should deal with wet and dry items simultaneously. They add extremely hot or corrosive elements to the mix and then radioactive debris had to be taken into account. vacuum cleaner manufacturers have to deal with all of this debris, a bi-product of some sort of manufacturing or large-scale commercial operation. At the same time as the new plant was being constructed, the special requirements of a company were dealt with on a case-by-case basis.

To protect the workers or to gather and store the valuable materials to keep from losing them, airborne debris, dust and microscopic particles of whatever was being produced in the shop had to be removed from the air. Huge vacuum cleaners that resembled air-conditioning units more closely than vacuum cleaners were mounted on rooftops, and behind the factories themselves. they performed precisely the opposite function. These huge vacuum cleaners are sucking the air out of the factories, either from the ceiling levels or from under the floor, filtering out the debris and keeping it accessible during cleaning while air-conditioners cool and then pump air into the factory to keep temperatures comfortable and controlled.

Fine particulate debris that factories produced as part of their manufacturing is needed to be maintained to save breathing environment for their workers. Those companies that are refining a valuable metal also need to collect the particulates for later re-use. Today’s industrial vacuum cleaners amply serve both functions.

Fitted Bedrooms, Bedroom Doors & Replacement Kitchen

If you’re thinking of purchasing a new fitted bedroom but don’t know what to do, you really need to know your options and how much will it cost etc. because the possibilities are endless. An ex bedroom fitter wrote this article so hopefully it will help you through this decision.

Your budget will determine everything. There are basically two form of bedroom installation: free standing / kit furniture and fully fitted.

Various components that make up a box with matching doors and accessories make up freestanding & kit form bedroom furniture. For support, this is usually fastened to your wall. This form of furniture can be purchased from companies such as Ikea, MFI and others and is relatively cheap. Nowadays, interesting designs are offered by many companies. With headaches and cost, these purchases sometimes prove an easier option. In order to assemble it if it’s supplied in kit form, you’ll need to be rather handy with a tool kit though. With a short life span on product wear, this type of furniture is usually manufactured in severe volume and the quality tends to be average.

A completely different category goes for a fully fitted bedroom. Fully built for your bedroom and installed to suit your walls and ceiling are purposes of fully fitted wardrobe. In a nutshell, you’ll either have to replace the existing doors and accessories using a replacement kitchen and bedroom door company or have to rip the old one. Thus, a complete facelift will be provided to your bedroom. Depending on which products you choose and quantity, this option is usually the cheapest and should costs around £500 – £1000.

Fully fitted bedroom, especially old Victorian timber wardrobes, can leave a terrible mess and lots of holes when ripped out, so beware. This should be attempted only by trained fitters. Otherwise, it will cost more than you think. . Holes in walls equal plasterers and builders; and as these guys usually very busy on large jobs, they aren’t cheap and take time to convince to do your job.

For a budget priced wardrobe, cost wise a new fitted bedroom starts at around £1500. Depending on the finish and material you choose, this will increase. The most expensive material is solid timber whereas the norm for most fitted bedroom companies goes to melamine faced chipboard and vinyl wrapped doors. If French polish or solid timber finishes are chosen, the costs increase greatly. Due to the expense of purchasing raw timber and the length of time it takes to manufacture, polished furniture products and timber products cost more. It is as if a new mini compared to Bentley. the most popular products used in the UK is melamine faced chipboard and vinyl wrapped kitchen and bedroom doors.

What the construction that suits you is needed to be known. Whoever you purchase this form, the makeup of a fitted bedroom is usually very similar. It is usually a box system/slim frame system or a front frame fixed system. Unless specified, a front frame face fixed system is always fastened from the floor to the ceiling. Fastened and scribed to suit your usually bumpy walls and ceiling, a fitter will assemble a frame. In order to take the weight of the top shelf and floor, battens are basically fastened to the back wall and floor. Then, end panels and fascia are cut and scribed and fixed to your frame. Finally, using fittings such as Blum hinges, doors are fitted. As you usually don’t get them with this method, you will need to ask for backs. For many years, sharp bedrooms have successfully used this system. As a fitter has to tailor the wardrobe specifically to your bedroom, it is a slightly time consuming. They are usually very highly trained.

A group of boxes pre made in the workshop and delivered to site for assembly is included in a box system and slim frame system. Onto a ready made plinth, the fitters usually level these boxes. With side gaps being filled with scribed in-fill pieces to cover any gaps, all boxes are then screwed together quickly. due to the fact that most items have been assembled in the workshop, this is a popular method. From company to company, there are various methods of this assembly. The fastest method installation is usually this one.

Make sure you ask the right questions of the furniture designer if you decide to have a home visit from a bedroom company. as this would provide you with an idea of their quality, ask if it is possible to visit a recent installation, how long the installation will take as sometimes jobs go on forever, and if you can visit their workshop. So just don’t go off their showroom as showrooms are always made to impress. You can ask how many jobs they install a week instead, as you really want to deal with somebody that’s specializes in fitted bedrooms. Also ask what system they use and whether it has backs in and be prepared!

A reputable company usually will answer these questions without hesitation. Ask how long the sales person will be in your house when you make the appointment. They’ll prompt that the husband and the wife must both be present on the night if it is going to be a hard sell. as this methods shows that this visit will result in a real hard sell and they want you to sign on the night, this should ring alarm bell. Selling on the night and not using hard tactics usually preferred by most reputable fitted bedroom companies. They usually give you ample time to decide as well. Tradesmen usually prefer to get on with the job at hand and don’t like to give too much sales patter.

Whether they use sub-contractors or not is also needed to be asked. Be very wary if they do. Good companies employ their won fitters, mostly. Subbies are known to be these fitters. A fair majority of subbies have no training or experience and usually bumble through a job leaving terrible problem behind, sadly to say. You’ll usually struggle to get them back to sort out problems that may have arisen if you’ve paid a subbie upfront.

A small deposit and settlement on completion based upon the installation team satisfying your needs usually will be asked by a reputable company.

doors that basically operate a replacement kitchen and bedroom door company based in the UK has been writing this article. vinyl wrapped doors and components for the fitted furniture industry are supplied by us.

Hopefully, this article will help you out in getting a great bedroom.

Some Tips for First Timer Home Buyer

The process of buying home can get quite overwhelming when it is the first time for you. It gives you the feeling that the financial decisions are rapidly spinning out of control. Most people don’t have a lot of experiences when it comes to real estates. However, buying process is actually simple. You just need to understand the basics which will very helpful for you in buying your very first home.

  1. Avoid pre-payment penalties

Avoiding pre-payment penalties at all costs is the first thing you should know. Pre-payment penalty means that you’ll have to pay a penalty if you buy the home then later want to sell it before the balance of your mortgage is due. Find great loans that don’t include these types of penalties. You should immediately turn it down and look for another loan if you find a loan that does include pre payment penalties.

  1. Lookout for good ARM

Also, you better lookout for good ARM’s. Your interest rate and monthly payment will adjust at the exact same time if you have a good ARM. It will ensure that your monthly payment doesn’t affected by your interest. You will notice the unpaid interest reflecting the overall amount of your loan balance if your interest rate does affect your payment.

  1. Get pre-approved for your house

Get pre-approved for your house as well. It will let the sellers know that you are a serious buyer and will normally work in your favor to give an edge which will be really helpful in case there are several others interested in purchasing the home. It will also save you a lot of time as well if you get pre-approved. However, you shouldn’t waste your time inspecting it if you can’t get approved for a loan. Just try to get a good interest rate, or negotiate with the seller for your ideal price. 

  1. Be aware of how much you can afford

You should always be aware of how much you can afford before you purchase a home. You also should always go over your budget and figure out how much money you can spend on a mortgage payment. This shouldn’t be hard any time at all if you manage your money smart and know your finances. On the other hand, this will take you a long time indeed if you don’t know your finances. 

  1. Avoid taking any type of home equity loan

You should always avoid taking any type of home equity loan if you’ve already purchase your first home. although most home equity loans add up to more than the value of your home, these loans can be very tempting when you get in an emergency and need cash. Since there are many other ways that you can clear up your personal problems without having to jeopardize your home, you should never take a home equity loan under any circumstances.

The above are just a few basic tips. There are many other things you’ll need to learn and find out before you buy your very first house. Several other things like private mortgage insurance, special loan programs, fixed rate and adjustable rate mortgage are need to be understood. Once you know a bit about it, you will think that buying a home is an easy process. You’ll find the home buying process to be easier than you ever thought possible if you familiarize yourself with buying a home and learn all that you can about what is involved.